Once the skin is damaged the increase in pigment forms a protective, but uneven layer across the affected areas. There are different types of hyper-pigmented skin. Melasma, from the Greek word “melanos,” for black, is a dark discoloration of facial skin exacerbated by:
- Sunlight exposure
- Changes in hormone levels during
- Use of oral contraceptives
- Certain medications
Freckles are another type of hyperpigmentation. They are clusters of concentrated pigment or senile lentigines, caused by over-exposure to the sun’s UV rays.
The most important objective for treating any type of hyperpigmentation is to inhibit pigment production. The second is to provide an exfoliating treatment to rid affected areas of existing pigment concentrations.